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Concept of the FLiSS for thin-film solar cells.
Calculated reflectivity maps of a 2D ZnO grating as a function of polar angle and wavelength. (a) in air and (b) in silicon.
SEM images of 2D ZnO gratings with (a) conventional surface-relief structure and (b) flattened surface filled with (n)a-Si:H (FLiSS).
Measured optical properties of the 2D ZnO grating before and after flattening. (a) Total and diffuse reflectivities measured with an integrated sphere in air and (b) a reflectivity map of 2D ZnO grating before flattening as a function of polar angle and wavelength.
J-V curves and corresponding J-V parameters of the cells fabricated on a flat substrate, a reference textured substrate, a 2D ZnO grating and a FLiSS.
spectra and the corresponding current densities in the IR region (here, ) of the cells fabricated on the flat substrate, the reference textured substrate, the 2D ZnO grating and the FLiSS.
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