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Histogram of the resistance values in a typical experiment with the definition of the H and L levels. The inset shows the experimental setup.
Initial stage of a typical experiment. The threshold levels were set to and , values compatible with the resistance switching capabilities of the device (a). The switching protocol starts with the sample in low resistance level. In the first step, it looks for proper pulse amplitude to set the device, requiring in this case positive pulses of increasing amplitude to overcome the level (c). The amplitude of the 14th pulse was (b). In the second step, negative pulses of increasing amplitude have been needed to reset the device (d), and so on. After the correction to the pulsing amplitudes ceases, reaching a ratio .
Effect of changing the ratio when the device is in stable operation. Shaded in gray, the region were program operates. The horizontal dotted lines indicate and values. (a) Figure for reference, no change in the ratio. (b) The initial changed to at cycle #0. (c) changed from to .
Model simulation of the achieved resistance for stable operation. The pulse amplitude required to change the vacancy distribution of the L state to the vacancy distribution of the H state is . The resistance values are normalized to the resistance of a sample with the same number of vacancies uniformly distributed, .
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