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Observation and characterization of mode splitting in microsphere resonators in aquatic environment
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

Characterization of WGM microsphere resonators in air and water in 660 nm wavelength band. and are quality factor of the microspheres in air and in water.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

Numerical simulation results showing the confinement of fundamental WGM modes in microspheres of different sizes in water and air at two different wavelength bands.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

Nanoparticle-induced MS in a microsphere resonator placed in water. (a) A typical MS spectrum observed in a microsphere of diameter for PS nanoparticle of . The amount of MS is . Dashed curve is the Lorentzian fit to the experimental data. (b) vs the size of microsphere resonator for nanoparticles of . (c) vs the nanoparticle size for microspheres of size (d) vs the nanoparticle size for microspheres of size . In (b) and (c), dashed curves are simulation results.

Image of FIG. 4.
FIG. 4.

Constant Q contours bounding the size range of nanoparticles which can induce MS in microspheres resonators of different diameters in water. The boundaries are calculated from the MS resolvability criterion using Q, , and from our experiments (dashed contours and square markers) and those from Refs. 2 and 8 (solid contours. MS could not be observed for the data points lying outside the contours denoted by the same marker. The only data which induced MS are the ones represented by filled squares.

Image of FIG. 5.
FIG. 5.

Numerical simulation results showing the comparison of (a) mode volume and (b) MS resolvability criterion for microsphere (dashed) and microtoroid with minor diameter (solid) resonators in water as a function of their major diameter at band. The ’s in (a) indicate . In (b) constant Q contours bound the size range of particles which can induce MS.


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: Observation and characterization of mode splitting in microsphere resonators in aquatic environment