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(a) Type II-1 twinning in NiTi corresponding to twin mode, the irrational twin plane and the step rational twin plane (b) Application of shear () and shuffle in direction during twin growth in mode.
(a) GPFE for NiTi martensite in system versus normalized shear displacement on successive plane; charge density difference between deformed and undeformed, (b) Ti–Ti atoms, (c) Ni–Ni, and (d) Ni–Ti under twinning shear 0.280 40 along path .
Deformation systems, fault energies and shear magnitudes.
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