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A sand pile formed by granules of can leak through a circular hole with 6 mm diameter on a paper while a sand pile formed by nanogranules of 20 nm are unable to leak.
The penetration of a nail. A hole is left for nanogranules while the hole is filled up by gravity driven flow for granules.
The variation in the volume of nanogranules SiC (20 and 200 nm) with the normal pressure. The inset shows the heights of SiC granules with different particle sizes in test tubes at the same weight after 1 min vibration.
The apparent viscosity of nanogranules (20 nm) at different volume fraction and of granule . The power law index is given.
The variation in the dynamic yield stress with the volume fraction for nanogranules with the size 20 nm. The variation in shear stress with shear rate is shown in the inset.
The variation in the dynamic moduli ( and ) with the volume fraction for nanogranules (20 nm). The variation in dynamic moduli with the oscillation frequency is shown in the inset for different particle sizes.
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