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(a) Orientation of the electric field above the surface of a periodically poled crystal. The inversion of surface charges under ambient atmosphere is considered. (b) Electrostatic force gradient at the domain wall for a negatively charged tip and inverted surface charges.
Simulated AFM linescan with a charged tip across a ferroelectric domain wall for different frequency shifts respective to the free resonance frequency of the cantilever.
(a) Sketch of the AFM tip with attached molecule. In praxis, a self assembled monolayer will assure the upright position. (b) 5 by AFM scan of a ferroelectric domain pattern on PPLN extending from the lower left to the upper right corner. The red line indicates the cross-section as illustrated in (c): Comparison of the simulation and the AFM signal corrected by the residual topography after CMP.
Simulation of AFM linescans of 180° out-of-plane lead titanate stripe domains with a surface charge of and a domain width of 7.5 nm at various frequency setpoints. The effective tip-charge is 0.1 e and the vertical lines indicate the position of the domain boundaries. The periodicity of the AFM signal corresponds to the underlying domain width. For narrow domains, extrema of the effective topography are centered above the domains.
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