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The dependence of applied and on the EM-induced failure characteristics of SV-ML devices electrically stressed by a current density of . (a) electrical resistance change vs time (t) curves at the different , (b) cumulative percent vs TTF curves at the different , (c) vs t curves at the different (different duty factors), and (d) cumulative percent vs TTF curves at the different .
Schematic illustrations of electrons’ motion in the SV-ML devices under (a) electrical field ( or ) and no magnetic field , and (b) electrical field ( or ) and magnetic field .
(a) Temperature distribution profiles, and (b) Cu atomic flux into the bottom Co layer in the SV-ML devices electrically stressed by a current density of under or no magnetic field including with different duty factors.
HR-TEM images for the SV-ML devices (a) before applying electrical stress, (b) after complete failure under the applied current density of and no magnetic field (99% of TTF), and (c) after failure under the both applied current density and a 600 Oe of magnetic field (99% of TTF).
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