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(a) Schematic diagram of the setup, (b) optical image showing GO before passing 3 V through electrodes, (c) region between the electrodes is fully reduced. Process is no longer reversible. (d) Sweeping voltages varying from 1 to 4.5 V are applied. GO between the electrodes are fully reduced when 4.5 V is applied across the electrodes.
Snapshots at different timings of the color change when sweeping voltage of 3.5 V is applied across the electrodes. (a) 0 s, (b) 15 s, (c) 28 s, and (d) 38 s.
XPS spectral of (a) as deposited before electrical reduction and (b) after electrical reduction. A constant voltage of 10 V is applied for 15 min, (c) electrical reoxidation by reverse bias of 10 V applied for 15 min, and (d) Raman spectroscopy.
Composition of C and O elements. After the reduction by electric pulse, %C in reduced area increases compared to that of unreduced area. After reoxidation by reverse bias, %C in reoxidized area increases compared to the reduced area but is still less than unreduced area.
Relative area intensity ratio of normalized to peak.
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