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(a) I-V curves measured on a 240 nm BFO thin film; Insets show the sketch of the set up for the I-V measurements and I-V curves at the voltage range of ±5 V, which indicate the forward and reverse diode characteristics. (b) I-V curves for the 240 and 120 nm BFO films plotted on semilogarithmic scales. The curves by open symbols were measured on forward sweep (from negative to positive voltages), and the curves by solid symbols were measured on reverse sweep (from positive to negative voltages).
(a) I-V curves measured on a virgin BFO thin film by increasing the voltage sweep range. Inset shows a magnification of the I-V curves for low voltage range. (b) Ferroelectric loops measured at 50 kHz with various voltages (6–30 V). Inset shows that the ferroelectric loop starts to appear at around ±6 V.
I-V curves of the SRO/BFO/Pt capacitance measured at (a) virgin state; (b) polarized up state; (c) polarized down state. The solid lines indicate an exponential fitting.
Schematic energy band diagrams illustrating the variations in Schottky barriers from back-to-back diodes at virgin (a) to a forward diode at polarized up (b) and a reverse diode at polarized down (c), corresponding to the I-V curves in Figs. 3(a)–3(c), respectively. Where, is the Schottky barrier at bottom (top) interface; is polarization charge; is screen charge; is the depletion width near bottom (top) electrode; is built-in potential barrier near the electrodes.
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