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Shock velocity vs particle velocity. The simulation results for SPC water are in good agreement with experimental data. The inset shows the setup for shock simulation. The gray plate is the momentum mirror.
Snapshots of velocity profile for the system with , , and . Arrows show the direction of average molecular velocities and the velocity magnitudes are color-coded. (a) shows a nanojet in the system at . The white vertical region is the bilayer. (b) shows a spreading flow at resulting from the impact of the nanojet on the lipid bilayer.
(a) and (b) are snapshots of the density of water at and 28 ps. Here , , and . The central blue region is the lipid bilayer. (a) shows the nanojet traveling toward the distal side of the nanobubble. (b) shows the deformed bilayer and water-hammer shock.
Poration of lipid bilayers by collapsed nanobubbles. Here and . In (a), the bilayer was initially in the gel phase at , and in (b) it was in the liquid phase at .
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