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(a) K-band ESR spectra, observed at 4.2 K for on thermal for three oxidation temperatures. The spectra are scaled to equal scanned interface area and Si:P reference signal intensity. (b) Q-band ESR spectrum measured on with , showing the presence of a second type of defect, labeled .
Angular g pattern of the defect in standard inferred from K-band measurements at 4.2 K, with rotating in the plane. The curves are obtained from optimized fitting of trigonal symmetry, using and . Only two branches of the g map are observed (solid curves), corresponding to defect positions with unpaired Si -like hybrid directed out of the (110) plane. The numbers added to the branches indicate the (expected) relative intensities of the corresponding ESR responses, in accord with experiment.
Areal density (a) and ESR line width (b) of the defect observed for at thermal interfaces as a function of . The dashed curves guide the eye. The dotted curves in panel (a) denote the density of and defects inherent to the thermal and interfaces, respectively. Error bars (typically ) represent the spread in data points over various measurements (typically 4–5).
Synopsis of some Si crystal plane properties compared with inherent -type defect densities measured by ESR. The values in parentheses represent densities relative to the respective (111) values, given here to facilitate tracing of any correlation with the experimental -type densities.
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