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I-V characteristics measured with a TEM instrument. The voltage swept from 0 to 7 V, 7 to −2 V, and back to 0 V with a current limit of .
Series of TEM images during voltage application. The symbols “” and “−” indicate the polarity of voltage. Each figure corresponds to points to shown in Fig. 1, respectively. (a) Cu–GeS (A) contacted by the Pt–Ir (B). [(b) and (c)] Deposit appeared and grew in the Cu–GeS with the application of positive voltage. The resistance gradually decreased. [(d) and (e)] The resistance rapidly decreased when the deposit connected between two Pt–Ir tips. The deposit size was saturated. [(f) and (g)] No change was confirmed in the deposit. The resistance maintained LRSs during voltage sweeping. (h) The deposit was suddenly shrunk with the increasing negative voltage. Disconnected deposit caused to high resistance. (i) Complete disappearance of the deposit.
(a) TEM image and (b) SAD pattern before voltage application. Clear spots caused by Pt–Ir and weak Debye-ring patterns were observed. The latter diffraction, which did not change during the resistance switching operation, may come from the Ge nanocrystals. The indices are those of Pt–Ir. (c) TEM image and (d) SAD pattern during voltage application of 1 V. The filamentlike deposit and the appearance of fine and sharp diffraction spots forming Debye-rings were recognized. They are thought to be from Cu nanocrystals, four of which corresponded with reflection indices.
(a) EDX spectrum before voltage application. The relative concentration was estimated as . (b) EDX spectrum during 1 V application. The Cu peak was strong from the deposit. The relative concentration of the deposit was estimated as .
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