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Schematic of Smith–Purcell free-electron laser. (a) A single grating with rectangular grooves. (b) A scheme of a main grating with Bragg gratings connected at both ends.
Dispersion relation of the surface wave. The beam line is for 35 keV electrons. The operation point is the intersection of the dispersion curve and the beam line.
Poynting vectors of the first few harmonics. Note that and are actually with negative value, meaning that energy flows backward.
Evolution of the amplitude of z-component magnetic field. (a) Bragg grating with period length are used at both ends, and , . The corresponding elongated grating is with period number of 64.5. (b) Bragg grating with period length is used upstream alone , and both ends (, ). The corresponding elongated gratings are with 65.5 and 70.5 periods, respectively.
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