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(a) Scanning electron microscopy image of the magnetotransport device. Inset is a part of the wire with two constrictions between the and V− electrodes. (b) Top figure: a schematic illustration of wire at its initial state with a DW pinned at the left constriction. The directions of external field and dc (opposite to the electron flow) are depicted as arrows. Bottom figure: measurements of depinning fields, and under −0.5 mA and 0.5 mA, respectively. Voltages are not similar because negative and positive currents give a different extra contribution to the resistance.
(a) Stochastic distributions under applied currents of 0 and −5 mA from more than 30 measurements. (b) vs field sweeping rate at zero current.
(a) Micromagnetic simulation result of (z component of dipolar field due to the presence of the reference layer) exerted on the free layer around a constriction. The space between reference layer (4.55 nm) and free layer (3.3 nm) is 4 nm. (b) Normalized magnetization of the free layer in z-axis vs applied magnetic field at the center of the constriction with (◼, ●) and without (▲, ▼) taking the reference layer into calculations.
(a) and (b) variations as a function of injected current. Error bars are standard deviation of distribution. The arrows on the DWs indicate the force direction that the DW feels by corresponding fields and currents. The dipolar field at the constriction is generated by the reference layer which is pointing down here.
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