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(a) Schematic top view representation of the UHV setup, adapted for ALD. X-rays hit the sample at a variable incidence angle. Scattered x-rays are observed with a PSD and fluorescent x-rays are observed by a silicon drift detector. (b) Schematics of the GISAXS geometry. Incident x-rays have a wave vector . Due to scattering the wave vector changes to . The momentum transfer due to scattering is denoted as .
(a) Evolution of the (9.0 keV) and (9.3 keV) intensity as measured during the first ALD cycles on RCA cleaned Si. The Hf XRF intensity is proportional to the number of Hf atoms deposited. (b) Evolution of the GISAXS signal as measured every 10 ALD cycles on RCA cleaned Si.
Integrated fluorescence intensity measured during ALD on H-terminated Si and RCA cleaned Si [(a) and (b)] and on H-terminated Ge and [(c) and (d)]. (b) and (d) are a detail of (a) and (c), respectively, focusing on the first 20 cycles.
Roughness evolution based on the integrated GISAXS pattern for ALD on (a) H-terminated Si and RCA cleaned Si and on (b) H-terminated Ge and .
Root-mean-square roughness resulting from post-deposition AFM-measurements.
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