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Growth and structural characterization of single-crystalline Bi nanowires. (a) A series of six SEM images of a Bi nanowire grown by OFF-ON with time at various temperatures. (b) A series of 27 SEM images of a long Bi nanowire transferred onto a substrate. The inset (top right and bottom left) show SEM images of starting and end segments of this NW. The inset (middle) shows SEM image of as-grown ultralong Bi nanowires. A low-magnification TEM image of Bi nanowires with the growth axis of (c) and (d) . Inset (top right) shows the electron diffraction pattern of the corresponding nanowire.
Coexistence of whisker and hillock. (a) SEM image of Bi whisker and hillocks on a surface of Bi thin film. (b) Schematics of different response of surface grains to the biaxial stress depending on the mobility of the grain boundary.
SEM and TEM study of the cross-section of a Bi nanowire-Bi thin film. (a) Representative SEM image of an individual Bi nanowire grown on a Bi thin film. (b) The cross-sectional Bi nanowire prepared by a FIB/FE-SEM dual beam system. The cross-section was sliced down to a thickness of 60 nm and lifted by a manipulating probe (Model 100.7™, Omniprobe, USA). Then the thickness of the nanowire was reduced to 5–60 nm using FIB milling for TEM analysis. To prevent the formation of an amorphous layer on the surface caused by the ion beam-induced damage, the sample was finally cleaned under low energy conditions (accelerating voltage of 5 kV and ion current of 70 pA). (c) High resolution TEM image of the cross-sectional Bi nanowire grown on a Bi thin film. (d) Magnified image of the Bi nanowire grown at the grain of the Bi thin film.
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