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Measurements of Gd-doped and undoped RRAM for continuous 100 cycles in dc sweeping mode. (a) Set and reset voltage distributions. (b) and distributions.
Statistical measurement of different Gd-doped and undoped RRAM devices using pulse mode, with 1.5 V height, width pulse for set process, and −1.5 V height, width pulse for reset process. The resistance is read at 100 mV.
Switching speed at different pulse heights in Gd-doped and undoped RRAM devices. (a) Minimum pulse width at different set pulse voltages. (b) Minimum pulse width at different reset pulse voltages.
Retention property of Gd-doped RRAM devices tested at .
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