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(a) Schematic structure of multilayer ring arrays. (b) Scanning electron microscopic images of the sample. A detailed image of one ring is shown on the bottom right corner.
M-H hysteresis loops of (a) the unbiased Fe ring arrays, and the exchange biased ring arrays with the field applied (b) along and (c) perpendicular to the bias direction. (d) The EB and the coercivity of exchange biased rings as a function of the field orientation .
Selected MFM images showing the magnetic reversal process for (a) the unbiased Fe rings at marked field values. Magnitude and direction of the magnetization is marked by the gray arrows on the ring. For the exchange biased rings (b) along the field cool direction at marked field values. (c) Perpendicular to the bias direction. The corresponding magnetic field values are the same as in (b). However, the images show that the EB ensures that there is always a significant component of the magnetization along .
Micromagnetic simulated spin configurations of the exchange biased ring in the magnetic reversal process [(a)–(d)] along the bias direction, and [(e)–(h)] perpendicular to the bias direction. The magnetization direction is indicated by the color wheel or overlaid arrows.
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