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HRTEM images recorded at different deformation stages during loading. Significant activates of dislocations in an sized grain A were in situ observed (as indicated by white arrows). Taken 60 s apart, (a)–(d) show a pair of dislocations (a dislocation dipole) that move toward each other and annihilate by reaction in the grain. (e)–(h), captured 400 s one after another, show a dislocation emitted from the GB moving into the grain interior. This dislocation was retained in the grain after the stress was removed.
In situ observation of a pair of moving dislocations (dipole) which subsequently annihilate by reaction in the grain. (a)–(c) are the corresponding enlarged HRTEM images of the framed regions in Figs. 1(a), 1(b), and 1(d).
In situ observation of a full dislocation moving from the GB into the inner parts of the grain during loading. The dislocation remained in the grain after the stress was removed.
(a)–(c) In situ observation of dislocation motion, interaction, and annihilation by dislocation reaction during loading in a grain. (d) A high density of dislocation existed in the grain interior after the stress was removed.
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