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A new Cu metallization scheme consisting of (a) Cu plating, (b) deposition of TaN stress-control liner, (c) thermal anneal, and (d) planarization.
(a) Blanket film stress determined by x-ray diffraction during heating for passivated and unpassivated Cu films. (b) Stress relaxation of passivated and unpassivated samples at a test temperature of .
Measurements of line resistance. Wafers 1–3: type I. Wafers 4–6: type II. Wafers 7–9: type III.
Scanning electron microscopy failure analysis results from an unpassivated sample post thermal anneal. Cross-section perpendicular to the Cu line indicating (a) delamination between Cu and sidewall Ta(N) liner, and (b) embedded voids.
FIB cross-sectional images of Cu films in (a) type I wafer post anneal and (b) type III wafer post anneal.
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