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(a) Cross sectional and (b) top down SEM images of the 440-nm-deep PhC. The cross sectional image was taken at an angle of 52° from the normal. The hard mask remains on the surface in both images. (c) Image of one of the vertical-injection thin-film PhC LEDs with a 330-nm-deep PhC.
Angle-resolved electroluminescence spectra ( direction, TE polarization) of the thin-film PhC LEDs with PhC etch depths of (a) 90 nm, (b) 330 nm, and (c) 440 nm. Polar emission patterns obtained by integrating these angle-resolved spectra over wavelength are shown directly below. The radial scale is the same for all three polar plots. On each plot, the dashed curve indicates a theoretical Lambertian emission pattern normalized to the same total output power as the PhC LED emission.
Measured photonic band structure ( direction, TE polarization) for the PhC LED with a 440-nm-deep PhC. Calculated photonic bands for modes (solid lines) and (dashed lines) are superimposed.
Optical confinement factor as a function of the effective index for TE guided modes in the PhC LEDs with PhC etch depths of (a) and (b) . (c) Vertical refractive index profile of the PhC LED with , showing normalized intensity profiles for the (blue) and (red) modes. The vertical offset for each mode corresponds to its effective index.
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