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Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) cross-section of a silver thick film contact showing the silicon substrate, silver crystals at the interface, the glass layer, and the silver bulk.
SEM top view of the silicon surface beneath a removed contact revealing pits originating from the removed silver crystals on Si-(100) at 10k magnification (upper row) and at 50k magnification (lower row). The area highlighted with white squares represents the magnified area. The samples are processed at (a) , (b) , and (c) . The associated specific contact resistance and the solar cell efficiency are , and , respectively.
(Color online) Number of pits versus pit size for different peak firing temperatures . Data points represent numbers of pits binned into intervals of . Lines are guide to the eye only.
(Color online) Left y-axis: measured and calculated specific contact resistance in dependence of the peak firing temperature . Right y-axis: silicon surface fraction with an interface to a silver crystal.
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