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(Color online) Crack velocity vs. driving energy (v-Γ) curves as a function of aH2O at 323 K for copper-silica and gold-silica interfaces. The solid lines represent the reaction rate kinetics model fits for aH2O = 0.15.
(Color online) (a) Fracture toughness ΓFT plotted as a function of aH2O at 323 K for copper-silica and gold-silica interfaces. In this plot, aH2O is on a log scale, (b) Copper plastic energy γp vs interfacial work of adhesion γa at 323 K.
(Color online) (a) Core-level Cu 2p sub-band and Si 2p sub-band from a Cu/SiO2 interface, measured by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy at aH2O = 0.85 and T = 323 K. Cleavage energy γxy plotted as a function of interfacial O and OH coverages for (b) breaking Cu-O/Cu-OH bonds and (c) breaking Si-O/Si-OH bonds. The schematic sketches indicate the location of Cu-O-Si bridge scission.
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