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Doping-based control of the energetic structure of photovoltaic co-deposited films
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19.Distances from the MoO3 source to QCM and to substrate were 9 and 18 cm, respectively. Tooling factor determined by surface profilometer was 0.25. Total-thickness signal from QCM vs. time relationship was monitored by PC display. For 70 ppm MoO3, though there was very slow cycling fluctuation (frequency: ∼300 s, amplitude: ∼0.05 nm) of signal, reproducible increase of baseline of 0.06 nm, which observed only during MoO3 evaporation, per prolonged timescale of 4300 s was observed (1.4 × 10−5 nm s−1).
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21.VB position of 6T in C60:6T co-deposited film (5.5 eV) was different to single 6T film (5.2 eV) presumably due to the existence of 6T single molecules or tiny 6T aggregates, which interacts with C60.
22.
22.When one assumes the phase separation of 6T and C60, the energetic structure of the bulk of a co-deposited layer such as 6T/C60/6T/C60 can be depicted based on the measured values of EFs for C60 and 6T single layers and for a C60:6T co-deposited layer. For the MoO3-doped p-type case, holes are suggested to be mainly transported through the 6T region.
23.
23.By increasing the doping concentration from 1100 to 4300 ppm, the shortest wavelength peak where absorbance exceeds 3 (300-400 nm) became the main component. Obviously, the depletion layer of the p-type Schottky junction shrunk with increasing doping concentration.
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Figures

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FIG. 1.

(Color) Energy diagrams of C60 and 6T single films and a C60:6T co-deposited film. C60 and 6T are shown by the black and orange lines, respectively. CB and VB denote the conduction band and the valence band, respectively. The work functions of MoO3 and ITO are also shown. The values of EFs for a non-doped (0 ppm) film and for a 3000 ppm MoO3-doped film are indicated by the blue (upper) and red (lower) broken lines, respectively.

Image of FIG. 2.

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FIG. 2.

(Color) Action spectra of the EQE of the short-circuit photocurrent for the cells ITO/MoO3-doped C60:6T/MoO3/Ag under irradiation onto the ITO electrodes. Curves A–E correspond to MoO3-doping concentrations of 0 (non-doped), 400, 600, 1100, and 4300 ppm, respectively. The absorption spectrum of the cell is shown by the black curve.

Image of FIG. 3.

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FIG. 3.

(Color) (a) Dependence of the magnitude of forward dark current density at +1 V on MoO3-doping concentration. (b) Dependence of EF position on film thicknesses near the ITO contacts for 600 (curve A) and 3000 ppm (curve B) MoO3-doped C60:6T films.

Image of FIG. 4.

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FIG. 4.

(Color) Schematic energetic structures of the ITO/C60:6T/MoO3 cells for various MoO3-doping concentrations. (a) 0 (non-doped) and 400 ppm. (b) 600 ppm. (c) 1100 and 4300 ppm. C60 and 6T are shown by the black and orange lines, respectively. The shaded areas correspond to the active zones for photocurrent generation. Photocurrent generation by the C60 excitation is also shown.

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/content/aip/journal/apl/99/13/10.1063/1.3643045
2011-09-26
2014-04-23

Abstract

Control of the energetic structure of photovoltaic co-deposited films consisting of fullerene and α-sexithiophene was demonstrated by ppm-level doping with molybdenum oxide (MoO3). The transition from an n-type Schottky junction via a metal/insulator/metal junction to a p-type Schottky junction by increasing the MoO3doping concentration was verified by observing the photovoltaic properties. Direct ppm-level doping into photoactive co-deposited films could become a powerful tool for designing the appropriate built-in potential for efficient organic photovoltaiccells.

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Scitation: Doping-based control of the energetic structure of photovoltaic co-deposited films
http://aip.metastore.ingenta.com/content/aip/journal/apl/99/13/10.1063/1.3643045
10.1063/1.3643045
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