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(Color online) (a) The I-V curve characteristics of the without-NBS sample and with-NBS treatment. The inset shows the PF treatment. (b) The I-V curve characteristics for the control sample. The inset shows unipolar characteristics. Both (a) and (b) show typical I-V curve characteristics with 10 mA compliance.
(Color online) The temperature-dependent initial low resistance state in with-NBS samples without switching operation, the inset (i) without-NBS device and the inset (ii) with-NBS with the bipolar switching operation.
(Color online) The LRS mechanism fitting result for (a) power law relationship, (b) Schottky mechanism of the without-NBS device, (c) Ohmic mechanism of the with-NBS without bipolar switching, and (d) Ohmic mechanism of the with-NBS with bipolar switching. And the inset of (b)–(d) shows the schematic diagram of the without-NBS and with-NBS mechanism.
(Color online) (a) Set and reset voltage statistics for with-NBS samples for 100 cycles in dc sweeping mode. The inset shows the statistics of the without-NBS sample. (b) Retention characteristics for both with and without NBS samples for both resistance states at 85 °C.
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