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(Color online) (a) A map of all possible IP polarization directions constructed by AR-PFM. (b) OP-PFM amplitude, and (c) phase images of vertically poled PZT thin film.
(Color online) Possible polarization configurations: (a) NDBs ((1): anti-parallel polarizations and (2): discontinuous polarizations with the same absolute θi values), (b) CDBs ((1): discontinuous polarizations with the different θi values, (2): head-to-head, and (3): tail-to-tail configurations. Black arrows, light gray (blue) lines, and dark gray (red) lines represent the polarization directions, NDBs and CDBs, respectively.
(Color online) (a) Piezoresponse hysteresis loops from NDBs and CDBs and (b) schematics of domain configuration and charge distribution at the charged domain boundary. Dashed lines represent surface normal lines of domain boundaries.
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