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(Color online) Images of Sample 1 (30 ML film) by (a) AFM topography; and (b) PFM amplitude times sine (PFM phase). The black area was polarized with a −10 V tip bias while scanning 3 μm by 3 μm square, taking 15 min to complete the scan. The bright central spot was then polarized with the tip stationary at a bias of +10 V for 10 min.
(Color online) Hysteresis loops from P(VDF-TrFE) LB films measured with the pulse-probe technique, The data are from Sample 1 (30 ML, tall loop) and Sample 2 (10 ML, wide loop).
(Color online) The voltage dependence of the switching rate Γ (V) = 1/t(V) for P(VDF-TrFE) LB films as measured by the prepare-pulse-probe technique. For sample 1 (30 ML, black circles), the direction of switching was toward positive tip voltage. The black dashed line shows the fit of Eq. (1) to the data from Sample 1. For Sample 2 (10 ML, blue triangles), the direction of switching was toward positive tip voltage for up triangles and to negative voltage for down triangles. The black dashed line shows the fit of Eq. (2) to the data from Sample 2.
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