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(Color online) (a) A schematic drawing of a (111) oriented perovskite. (b) An AFM micrograph of a (111) oriented SrTiO3 treated substrate. (c) An AFM micrograph of a chemically etched LaAlO3 substrate. The inset shows an AFM micrograph of a (111) oriented LaAlO3 substrate that was annealed for 1 h at a 1000 °C without any chemical treatment.
(a) and (b) show the RHEED pattern before and after the BiFeO3 growth without buffer layer. (c), (d), and (e) show the RHEED pattern before the buffer layer growth, after the buffer layer growth, and after the BiFeO3 layer growth.
(Color online) The RHEED oscillations during the first two monolayers of growth are shown for CaTiO3 grown directly on (111) LaAlO3 (blue/dark grey line), for the LaAlO3 buffer layer grown on LaAlO3 (green/light grey line), for CaTiO3 grown on a LaAlO3 buffer layer (red/light grey line), and for CaTiO3 grown on a LaAlO3 buffer layer that has been cooled down before the CaTiO3 deposition (black line). The insert shows the RHEED oscillations for CaTiO3 grown directly on (111) LaAlO3.
TEM images of the LaAlO3-CaTiO3 interfaces (the (10-1) zone axis). (a) Clear dislocations at the interface between the CaTiO3 and the LaAlO3. (b) A coherent interface due to the presence of the buffer layer, discernible as a slightly lighter contrast for three layers indicated by the dashed lines.
(a) RHEED pattern of the LaAlO3 substrate, (b) RHEED pattern after the growth of the LaAlO3 buffer layer, and (c) RHEED pattern after the LaAlO3 buffer layer has been cooled down. (a), (b), and (c) show the RHEED pattern for the (11-2) planes. The white arrows show the positions of the diffraction peaks.
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