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Evidence for non-isotropic emitter orientation in a red phosphorescent organic light-emitting diode and its implications for determining the emitter’s radiative quantum efficiency
10. D. S. Setz, T. D. Schmidt, M. Flämmich, S. Nowy, J. Frischeisen, B. C. Krummacher, T. Dobbertin, K. Heuser, D. Michaelis, N. Danz, W. Brütting, and A. Winnacker, J. Photon. Energy 1, 011006 (2011).
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The efficiency of organic light-emitting diodes is limited as only a fraction of the consumed electrical power is converted into light that is finally extracted to air. Especially, the radiative quantum efficiency of the guest-host system is of interest and should be close to unity to achieve highly efficient devices. We show that the red phosphorescent emitter Ir(MDQ)2(acac) doped in an α-NPD matrix exhibits a profound non-isotropic dipole orientation. Ignoring this feature leads to a significant overestimation of the emitter efficiency. Furthermore, we demonstrate the huge potential for efficiency enhancement of mainly parallel emitter orientation in phosphorescent organic light-emitting diodes.
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