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(Color online) SEM micrograph profile of Er0.1Yb1.9SiO5 strip loaded waveguide. Inset: calculated fundamental TE-mode profile of fabricated waveguide.
(Color online) Photoluminescence spectrum of Er0.1Yb1.9SiO5 film and calculated absorption spectrum using McCumber theory.
(Color online) (a) Transmission spectra for signal light through a 7.8-mm-long waveguide at different pump power. (b) Measured enhancement of 1533 nm signal light as a function of pump power. Inset: enhancement spectrum for the fixed pump power of 372 mW.
(Color online) (a) Upconversion light emission spectrum at visible wavelength range. (b) Erbium ion energy level involved in upconversion emission. (i) Energy level diagram. (ii) The first-order CUC. (iii) The second-order CUC. (iv) The second-order ESA. (v) The Yb3+ participated ETU process from 4I13/2 state. (vi) Cross-relaxation between 4I11/2 state and 4F9/2 state. (vii) The Yb3+ participated ETU process from 4F9/2 state.
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