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High-resolution single-mode fiber-optic distributed Raman sensor for absolute temperature measurement using superconducting nanowire single-photon detectorsa)
a)This paper represents work of the U.S. government and is not subject to copyright.
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Image of FIG. 1.
FIG. 1.

(Color online) Diagram of our high-spatial-resolution fiber-optic temperature-sensor system. The pulsed laser is a femtosecond fiber laser with a 36 MHz clock rate. The pump filters are bandpass filters with 1 nm linewidth at a center wavelength of 1533.47 nm. The pump rejection filters are identical to the pump filters, but are connected so that they reject the pump wavelength and pass all other wavelengths. The bandsplitters are used to separate the S-band wavelengths (1460 nm–1490 nm) and L-band wavelengths (1570 nm–1610 nm) from the C-band wavelengths (1530 nm–1565 nm). EDFA: erbium-doped fiber amplifier, SNSPD: superconducting-nanowire single-photon detector, TIA: time-interval analyzer.

Image of FIG. 2.
FIG. 2.

(Color online) Results of the temperature measurement from an electrical wire with a short (approximately 12 mm) defect section of narrow-gauge electrical wire in series with a thicker-gauge wire. When current is applied to the electrical wire, the defect section is heated, and we are able to measure that temperature spike with our sensing system. A histogram bin size of 4 ps was used, with an integration period of 10 min.

Image of FIG. 3.
FIG. 3.

(Color online) (a) Plot of measured temperature from a fiber that was coiled into three loops with 11 cm diameter and partially immersed in a hot water bath. The vertical axis shows the measured temperature of the fiber, the first horizontal axis shows the position along the fiber, and the second horizontal axis shows time as the water bath was allowed to cool. Measurements were taken in 1-min intervals (1-min integration period) as the water bath cooled. Peaks in temperature are seen at the expected 35 cm spacing. (b) Comparison of temperature measured with the fiber Raman sensor from one peak and a conventional thermocouple. A reference temperature of 295 K was used for the section of the fiber at room temperature, and the detuning of 59 nm between pump and Stokes/anti-Stokes bands was applied to process the Raman data. The time-stamps for both data sets of (b) were recorded in the experiment; there are no free parameters in the comparison shown in (b). Plotted data have a 5-point adjacent average applied along the spatial (position) axis [for (b) the 5 adjacent points averaged are all at the same temperature, immersed in the bath].


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752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd
Scitation: High-resolution single-mode fiber-optic distributed Raman sensor for absolute temperature measurement using superconducting nanowire single-photon detectorsa)