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Solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance analysis of phase separation behavior of regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester in bulk heterojunction organic solar cells
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The origin of the improvement in power conversion efficiency (PCE) by the thermal annealing of bulk heterojunction organic solar cells, based on regioregular poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) (rrP3HT) and [6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PCBM), is analyzed via solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance(NMR).1H spin-lattice relaxation experiments of solid-state NMR clearly reveal that the phase-separated heterojunction structure develops on the order of several tens of nanometers in rrP3HT/PCBM blend films with thermal annealing at 150 °C. The development of the phase-separated structure explains the increase in the PCE for the solar cell system from 0.7% to nearly 3% through the thermal annealing.
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