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(Color online) Measured normalized R for amorphous GST films as a function of time from the sputtering deposition and for a PCM cell as a function of time after reset. GST films were either stress-free (<5 MPa) or affected by a tensile stress of about 50 MPa. All data obey the power-law in Eq. (1) with ν around 0.1, irrespective of the stress level.
(Color online) Schematic layout (left) and cross section (right) of a PCM device, indicating the amorphous cap, the bottom electrode, or BE, and the nitride stressor layers.
(Color online) Measured resistance as a function of programming voltage Vprog (a) and drift exponent ν as a function of R (b) for PCM cells with high and low compressive stress levels in the amorphous cap. The different internal stress due to stressor layers do not result in significantly different drift behaviors.
Measured exponent ν of the drift for different samples and stress conditions. The average ν from Fig. 3(b) was included for PCM cells with different nitride layers.
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