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(Color online) Schematic of the BiFeO3 film, in-plane IDEs, and nanodiffraction experimental setup. Au IDEs were deposited to apply electric fields perpendicular and parallel to the as-grown VDWs. The ferroelectric hysteresis loops from cycling the two IDEs with 1 ms ± 150 V pulses are also shown. Focused beam specular nanodiffraction (shown schematically) was used to probe as-grown and poled regions of the film.
(Color online) Schematic cross sections are shown (bottom row) of LT, RT, and UT stripe domains that are each illuminated by a nanofocused beam that fits fully inside the domain. The orientation of the illuminated lattice planes determines the local diffracted intensity distribution. The BiFeO3 (002) p Bragg peak region is coarsely divided into three regions of interest (LT, RT, UT) used to characterize the local domain tilt state.
(Color online) SEM and corresponding x-ray nanodiffractions maps are shown of the IDE regions poled with E|| and E⊥ fields. The tilt magnitude maps were made with a ∼250 nm diameter defocused x-ray beam and are shown with a color scale given by . Areas 1-3 were further studied with a ∼40 nm beam.
(Color online) Focused beam nanodiffraction tilt maps of the as-grown and poled BiFeO3 film are shown with contrast given by . The as-grown and poled E⊥ areas exhibit out-of-plane tilting indicative of vertical domain walls, while the E|| poled film switched to an untilted state consistent with a monodomain film or with slanted domain walls (dashed lines).
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