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(Color online) Evolution of the y ratio in the growing layer during the 3-stage process and position of the 3 points A, B, and C.
(Color online) (a) SEM cross sections of CIGSe thin films at point A, B, and C. (b) APT reconstructed volumes of Na atoms (black dots). Maps have been rotated in order to show GBs interfaces perpendicular to the plane of the figure. (c) Cu, In, Ga, Se, and Na concentration profiles perpendicularly to GB interfaces. Error bars are calculated from statistical sampling error inherent from the APT technique: standard deviation 2σ with σ = (C(1–C)/N)1/2, N being the number of detected ions contained in the sampling box, and C the solute concentration.
(Color online) Na Gibbsian interfacial excess at the GBs and Na composition measured inside the grains for the 3 layers A, B, and C.
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