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Fabrication of sub-10 nm gap arrays over large areas for plasmonic sensors
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We report a high-throughput method for the fabrication of metallic nanogap arrays with high-accuracy over large areas. This method, based on shadow evaporation and interference lithography, achieves sub-10 nm gap sizes with a high accuracy of ±1.5 nm. Controlled fabrication is demonstrated over mm2 areas and for periods of 250 nm. Experiments complemented with numerical simulations indicate that the formation of nanogaps is a robust, self-limiting process that can be applied to wafer-scale substrates. Surface-enhanced Raman scattering(SERS) experiments illustrate the potential for plasmonic sensing with an exceptionally low standard-deviation of the SERS signal below 3% and average enhancement factors exceeding 1 × 106.
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