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(Color online) Schematic diagram of (a) d33 hysteresis loop when applying (b) a sinusoidal voltage as a function of time to the AFM tip, and plots of resulting strain as a function of (c) electric field and (d) time.
(Color online) (a) AFM topography and SH-PFM images showing (b) amplitude and (c) phase as a function of switching cycles: (1) 5 × 105, (2) 1 × 106, (3) 1.5 × 106, and (4) 2 × 106.
(Color online) (a) Piezoresponse hysteresis loops at various switching cycles and plot of (b) remnant piezoresponse as a function of switching cycles.
(Color online) Plots of SH-PFM (a) amplitude and phase, and (b) inverse standard deviation of SH-PFM phase as a function of switching cycles.
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