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(Color online) (a) A schematic of the silicon waveguide based optical phased array. (b) Beam propagation simulation of the photonic circuit.
(Color online) (a) 12-element non-uniform array design with 3 sub-arrays of single-mode silicon waveguides embedded in silicon dioxide, with dimensions of a single waveguide shown in the inset. (b) Theoretical far-field pattern for a non-steered and a steered beam inside the planar guide. The envelope is the far field pattern of a single silicon waveguide embedded in silicon dioxide.
(Color online) (a) Tilted SEM view of the unequally spaced OPA output and silicon nanomembrane planar guide. (b) Optical microscope picture of the 12 thermo-optic heaters with bonding pads.
(Color online) (a) SEM cross section of a heater over its waveguide. (b) comsol multiphysics simulation of the thermal profile of the microheater and waveguide cross section with bread loafing of the oxide.
(Color online) Far field characterization, (a) simulated and measured steering angle versus maximum power per channel. Effective steering angles in free space are determined from measurement data. (b) Power efficiency versus steering angle and (c) side-lobe-level versus steering angle.
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