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(Color online) ɛ at Tm = 15 °C for the Td = 188 °C CdTe film and ɛ at room temperature for single crystal CdTe. Major critical points within this spectral range are indicated.
(Color online) The Tm = 15 °C E0 CP energy (left scale) of CdTe films as a function of Td . The in-plane compressive stress (right scale) was deduced with the assumed grain structure shown at the upper right.
(Color online) Linear fits of E 0 vs. Tm and the average slope 〈C T (E0)〉 for the sputtered CdTe films of Fig. 2, compared with c-CdTe as studied by Kim (see Ref. 9).
(Color online) Shifts in the E1, E1 + Δ1, and E2 CP energies at Tm = 15-23 °C for CdTe films and solar cells with the thicknesses and process conditions indicated, relative to the CP energies of c-CdTe. These shifts are plotted versus stress deduced from ΔE 0 (for films) or from a CP average (for cells). The stress coefficients are the slopes of the linear fits (solid lines) for the as-deposited 0.1 μm films forced to pass through the c-CdTe points (stars at X = 0). Arrows and dotted lines denote the process flow for the growth and CdCl2 treatment (see Fig. 5) of the CdTe layer of a cell.
(Color online) Depth profile of stress in the CdTe layer of an as-grown and CdCl2 treated solar cell, deduced from three CP energies, using stress coefficients of Table I.
Stress coefficients of the CP energies for sputtered CdTe films and the CP energies for c-CdTe and CdTe films before (Td = 215 °C) and after CdCl2 treatment. The error bars are the 90% confidence limits in the fits using Eq. (1).
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