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(Color online) (a) A schematic plot of the single-electron turnstiles with VGL (t) and VGR (t) controlling the tunneling barriers. (b)The schematic diagrams of the barrier changing at different time from (1) to (4).
(Color online) The tunneling rates of the left (red solid lines) and right (blue dashed lines) lead alter with time by (a) a square wave gate voltage with amplitude V sq = 100Γ and frequency ω sq = 2πf sq = πΓ and (b) a sinusoidal wave modulation with V sin = 100Γ and ω sin = 2πf sin = 2Γ.
(Color online) The time-dependent electron population (the solid line), the pumping current (the dash-dotted line), left current (dash-dash line) and right current (dash-dotted-dotted line) altered by (a)-(b) the square wave modulation with the driving frequency f sq = 7.5 GHz and 75 GHz and (c)-(d) the sinusoidal wave modulation with the driving frequency f sin = 5 GHz and 50 GHz, respectively.
(Color online) (a) The pumping current as a function of the operating frequency for the square wave modulation.
(Color online) The electron population and the transient current when (a) only the left lead coupling to dot is turned with the sinusoidal wave modulation. (b) Only the right lead coupling to dot is turned on by the same voltage with initial preparation: n(t 0) = 1. Here, we take the voltage amplitude Vsin = 1 meV and the operating frequency f sin = 50 GHz.
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