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(Color online) (a) Schematic view of the stacked TiO2−δ/LSMO based RRAM devices. (b) The XRD spectrum of the as-deposited films. The epitaxial growth of the TiO2−δ/LSMO stacks was confirmed with a highly c axis orientation.
(Color online) Special bipolar RS behavior of the stacked TiO2−δ/LSMO devices. (a) Positive electrical biases with increasing maximum voltage (+3V,+5V) switch the as-deposited device from ORS to HRS1 and HRS2. (b) Negative electrical biases with increasing current compliance (0.1 mA, 1 mA) switch the as-deposited device from ORS to LRS1 and LRS2. (c) The I-V curves for each state of TiO2−δ/LSMO stacks, confirming the intermediate ORS state is just between multiple HRS and LRS.
(Color online) (a) The XPS depth profile performed on the TiO2−δ/LSMO stacks. The content of each element during Ar-etching is demonstrated. (b) The effective oxygen stoichiometry of TiO2−δ layer. The δ value is continuously reduced to zero on approaching the TiO2−δ/LSMO interface. (c) The schematic structure of the TiO2−δ/TiO2/LSMO stacks.
(Color online) (a) Plots of In |I/V| vs V1/2 for the ORS, HRS1, and HRS2 with same linear slope and increased intercepts. (b) Plots of In |I/V| vs V1/2 for the ORS, LRS1, and LRS2. The LRS obviously deviated from the P-F emission in higher current compliance situations. (c) LRS2 switched back to HRS under positive electrical biases. The multiple HRS agreed with P-F transition again. (d) Schematic of the microscopic switching process for understanding the intermediate initial state and switching polarity behavior in the stacked TiO2−δ/LSMO devices.
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