Volume 106, Issue 17, 27 April 2015
- photonics and optoelectronics
- surfaces and interfaces
- structural, mechanical, optical, and thermodynamic properties of advanced materials
- magnetics and spintronics
- superconductivity and superconducting electronics
- dielectrics, ferroelectrics, and multiferroics
- nanoscale science and technology
- organic electronics and photonics
- device physics
- biophysics and bio-inspired systems
- energy conversion and storage
- interdisciplinary and general physics
Index of content:
Random tunneling two-level systems (TLSs) in dielectrics have been of interest recently because they adversely affect the performance of superconducting qubits. The coupling of TLSs to qubits has allowed individual TLS characterization, which has previously been limited to TLSs within (thin) Josephson tunneling barriers made from aluminum oxide. Here, we report on the measurement of an individual TLS within the capacitor of a lumped-element LC microwave resonator, which forms a cavity quantum electrodynamics (CQED) system and allows for individual TLS characterization in a different structure and material than demonstrated with qubits. Due to the reduced volume of the dielectric (80 μm3), even with a moderate dielectric thickness (250 nm), we achieve the strong coupling regime as evidenced by the vacuum Rabi splitting observed in the cavity spectrum. A TLS with a coherence time of 3.2 μs was observed in a film of silicon nitride as analyzed with a Jaynes-Cummings spectral model, which is larger than seen from superconducting qubits. As the drive power is increased, we observe an unusual but explicable set of continuous and discrete crossovers from the vacuum Rabi split transitions to the Glauber (coherent) state.
- PHOTONICS AND OPTOELECTRONICS
106(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4919381View Description Hide Description
We study the optically nonlinear sub-bandgap photocurrent generation facilitated by an extended tailing distribution of states in an InAs/GaAs quantum dots (QDs) solar cell. The tailing states function as both the energy states for low energy photon absorption and the photocarriers extraction pathway. One of the biggest advantages of our method is that it can clearly differentiate the photocurrent due to one-photon absorption (1PA) process and two-photon absorption (2PA) process. Both 1PA and 2PA photocurrent generation efficiency in an InAs/GaAs QD device operated at 1550 nm have been quantitatively evaluated. A two-photon absorption coefficient β = 5.7 cm/GW is extracted.
106(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4919388View Description Hide Description
Electrically driven emission from negatively charged silicon-vacancy (SiV)− centers in single crystal diamond is demonstrated. The SiV centers were generated using ion implantation into an i region of a p-i-n single crystal diamond diode. Both electroluminescence and the photoluminescence signals exhibit the typical emission that is attributed to the (SiV)− centers. Under forward and reversed biased PL measurements, no signal from the neutral (SiV)0 defect could be observed. The realization of electrically driven (SiV)− emission is promising for scalable nanophotonics devices employing color centers in single crystal diamond.
Realization of unbiased photoresponse in amorphous InGaZnO ultraviolet detector via a hole-trapping process106(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4918991View Description Hide Description
A metal-semiconductor-metal (MSM) structure ultraviolet photodetector has been fabricated from amorphous InGaZnO (a-IGZO) film at room temperature. The photodetector can work without consuming external power and show a responsivity of 4 mA/W. The unbiased photoresponse characteristic is attributed to the hole-trapping process occurred in the electrode/a-IGZO interface, and a physical model based on band energy theory is proposed to explain the origin of the photoresponse at zero bias in our device. Our findings may provide a way to realize unbiased photoresponse in the simple MSM structure.
106(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4919131View Description Hide Description
It has been theoretically predicted that N-photon quantum imaging can realize either an N-fold resolution improvement (Heisenberg-like scaling) or a -fold resolution improvement (standard quantum limit) beyond the Rayleigh diffraction bound, over classical imaging. Here, we report the experimental study on spatial sub-Rayleigh quantum imaging using a two-photon entangled source. Two experimental schemes are proposed and performed. In a Fraunhofer diffraction scheme with a lens, two-photon Airy disk pattern is observed with subwavelength diffraction property. In a lens imaging apparatus, however, two-photon sub-Rayleigh imaging for an object is realized with super-resolution property. The experimental results agree with the theoretical prediction in the two-photon quantum imaging regime.
106(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4919528View Description Hide Description
An operating semiconductor laser has been studied using a scanning probe microscope. A shift of the resonance frequency of probe that is due to its heating by laser radiation has been analyzed. The observed shift is proportional to the absorbed radiation and can be used to measure the laser near field or its output power. A periodical dependence of the measured signal has been observed as a function of distance between the probe and the surface of the laser due to the interference of the outgoing and cantilever-reflected waves. Due to the multiple reflections resulting in the interference, the light absorption by the probe cantilever is greatly enhanced compared with a single pass case. Interaction of infrared emission of a diode laser with different probes has been studied.
Giant birefringence and dichroism induced by ultrafast laser pulses in hydrogenated amorphous silicon106(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4919538View Description Hide Description
A femto- and picosecond laser assisted periodic nanostructuring of hydrogenated amorphous silicon (a-Si:H) is demonstrated. The grating structure with the subwavelength modulation of refractive index shows form birefringence (Δn ≈ −0.6) which is two orders of magnitude higher than commonly observed in uniaxial crystals and femtosecond laser nanostructured silica glass. The laser-induced giant birefringence and dichroism in a-Si:H film introduce extra dimensions to the polarization sensitive laser writing with applications that include data storage, security marking, and flat optics.
106(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4918994View Description Hide Description
We studied the InGaN laser diode, emitting in the blue region of the spectrum and characterized by a negative characteristic temperature T0. The corresponding decrease in the threshold current with the increase in temperature for this device is caused by the increased distance between the electron-blocking layer and the quantum wells. Because of the non-monotonic temperature dependence of laser parameters, we can demonstrate a correlation of the degradation rate with nonradiative part of the total device current. This result indicates the potential importance of the recombination processes occurring outside of the active region for the reliability of InGaN laser diodes.
106(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4919656View Description Hide Description
Polarization sensitive photoluminescence is performed on single non-polar InGaN quantum dots. The studied InGaN quantum dots are found to have linearly polarized emission with a common polarization direction defined by the  crystal axis. Around half of ∼40 studied dots have a polarization degree of 1. For those lines with a polarization degree less than 1, we can resolve fine structure splittings between −800 μeV and +800 μeV, with no clear correlation between fine structure splitting and emission energy.
106(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4918712View Description Hide Description
The recombination times of photo-excited free charge carriers in heavily doped and highly compensated germanium are studied by a time-resolved pump-probe experiment at a frequency of ∼3 THz. The dominant dopant in the germanium samples is either antimony (n-Ge:Ga:Sb) or gallium (p-Ge:Sb:Ga) with compensating doping levels close to 100%. The recombination time of the free charge carriers measured by our pump-probe technique varies between 30 and 300 ps. It decreases with increasing pump pulse energy and increasing compensation due to high concentrations of Coulomb recombination centers. The recombination times at low pump powers are up to ten times shorter than those previously obtained for low-compensated n-Ge:Sb and p-Ge:Ga. The photoconductive detector made from this material shows the response time is in the order of its recombination time.
106(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4919536View Description Hide Description
We study experimentally both magnetic and electric optically induced resonances of silicon nanoparticles by combining polarization-resolved dark-field spectroscopy and near-field scanning optical microscopy measurements. We reveal that the scattering spectra exhibit strong sensitivity of electric dipole response to the probing beam polarization and attribute the characteristic asymmetry of measured near-field patterns to the excitation of a magnetic dipole mode. The proposed experimental approach can serve as a powerful tool for the study of photonic nanostructures possessing both electric and magnetic optical responses.
Evidence for a defect level above the conduction band edge of InAs/InAsSb type-II superlattices for applications in efficient infrared photodetectors106(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4919549View Description Hide Description
We report pressure-dependent photoluminescence (PL) experiments under hydrostatic pressures up to 2.16 GPa on a mid-wave infrared InAs/InAs0.86Sb0.14 type-II superlattice (T2SL) structure at different pump laser excitation powers and sample temperatures. The pressure coefficient of the T2SL transition was found to be 93 ± 2 meV·GPa−1. The integrated PL intensity increases with pressure up to 1.9 GPa then quenches rapidly indicating a pressure induced level crossing with the conduction band states at ∼2 GPa. Analysis of the PL intensity as a function of excitation power at 0, 0.42, 1.87, and 2.16 GPa shows a clear change in the dominant photo-generated carrier recombination mechanism from radiative to defect related. From these data, evidence for a defect level situated at 0.18 ± 0.01 eV above the conduction band edge of InAs at ambient pressure is presented. This assumes a pressure-dependent energy shift of −11 meV·GPa−1 for the valence band edge and that the defect level is insensitive to pressure, both of which are supported by an Arrhenius activation energy analysis.
106(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4919588View Description Hide Description
While terahertz time-domain spectroscopy directly measures amplitude and phase of pulsed terahertz electric fields, the use of more compact terahertz continuous wave sources requires interferometric measurement techniques to obtain phase information. Since constructive and destructive interference are governed by the relative phase of the superimposing fields the phase information can be retrieved from the amplitude modulation signal at the output of the interferometer. Here, we present phase-sensitive measurements of terahertz electric fields in a Mach-Zehnder interferometer that is integrated in a hollow-core metallic ridge waveguide. With lactose in one of the interferometer arms, we measured the modulated amplitude spectrum of the interferometer output signal which carries information about the dielectric properties of the investigated lactose. We explain the measured transmission spectra and the observed dielectric resonances by analytic and numerical means and further confirmed the results by a spectroscopic reference measurement of lactose in a conventional waveguide.
Local thermal resonance control of GaInP photonic crystal membrane cavities using ambient gas cooling106(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4919386View Description Hide Description
We perform spatially dependent tuning of a GaInP photonic crystal cavity using a continuous wave violet laser. Local tuning is obtained by laser heating of the photonic crystal membrane. The cavity resonance shift is measured for different pump positions and for two ambient gases: He and N2. We find that the width of the temperature profile induced in the membrane depends strongly on the thermal conductivity of the ambient gas. For He gas, a narrow spatial width of the temperature profile of 2.8 μm is predicted and verified in experiment.
- SURFACES AND INTERFACES
Understanding the role of buried interface charges in a metal-oxide-semiconductor stack of Ti/Al2O3/Si using hard x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy106(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4919448View Description Hide Description
Hard X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (HAXPES) analyses were carried out on metal-oxide-semiconductor (MOS) samples consisting of Si, thick and thin Al 2O3, and a Ti metal cap. Using Si 1s and C 1s core levels for an energy reference, the Al 1s and Si 1s spectra were analyzed to reveal information about the location and roles of charges throughout the MOS layers. With different oxide thicknesses (2 nm and 23 nm), the depth sensitivity of HAXPES is exploited to probe different regions in the MOS structure. Post Ti deposition results indicated unexpected band alignment values between the thin and thick films, which are explained by the behavior of mobile charge within the Al 2O3 layer.
Wetting state on hydrophilic and hydrophobic micro-textured surfaces: Thermodynamic analysis and X-ray visualization106(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4919136View Description Hide Description
In this study, the wetting state on hydrophobic and hydrophilic micro-textured surfaces was investigated. High spatial resolution synchrotron X-ray radiography was used to overcome the limitations in visualization in previous research and clearly visualize the wetting state for each droplet under quantified surface conditions. Based on thermodynamic characteristics, a theoretical model for wetting state depending on the chemical composition (intrinsic contact angle) and geometrical morphology (roughness ratio) of the surfaces was developed.
- STRUCTURAL, MECHANICAL, OPTICAL, AND THERMODYNAMIC PROPERTIES OF ADVANCED MATERIALS
106(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4918703View Description Hide Description
We have calculated the mean free path (MFP) of phonons associated with grain boundary scattering in polycrystalline nanostructures, by developing a Monte Carlo ray tracing transmission model that can be applied to arbitrary geometries. The calculations for various log-normal grain-size distributions realized by Voronoi diagrams and genetic algorithms show that the boundary-scattering MFP in a polycrystalline nanostructure is 20%–30% longer than that in a simple cubic structure with the same average grain size (defined by matching grain volumes). The impact on thermal conductivity is quantified for nanocrystalline silicon by using Matthiessen's rule to combine boundary scattering with intrinsic phonon-phonon scattering. The result reveals that the thermal conductivity depends strongly on the average grain size but only weakly on the breadth of the grain-size distribution, and thus, the simple cubic structure is a reasonable approximation for the polydisperse grain structure of actual materials.
106(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4919003View Description Hide Description
In this article, we present the abnormal compression and plastic behavior of germanium during the pressure-induced cubic diamond to β-tin structure transition. Between 8.6 GPa and 13.8 GPa, in which pressure range both phases are co-existing, first softening and followed by hardening for both phases were observed via synchrotron x-ray diffraction and Raman spectroscopy. These unusual behaviors can be interpreted as the volume misfit between different phases. Following Eshelby, the strain energy density reaches the maximum in the middle of the transition zone, where the switch happens from softening to hardening. Insight into these mechanical properties during phase transformation is relevant for the understanding of plasticity and compressibility of crystal materials when different phases coexist during a phase transition.
106(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4919105View Description Hide Description
Graphene woven fabrics (GWFs) can sense large strain up to 10% with the highest gauge factors (105) thus far reported. This result promises key applications particularly in sensing strains of soft materials such as biological tissues, but the mechanism of such super gauge factor (SGF) property was not very clear. Through a bio-inspired Voronoi polycrystalline micromechanics model together with experimental validations, we show that the successive cracking, the “fish-scale” like network structure of GWFs, and the superlubricity between overlapped graphene flakes play crucial roles resulting in the SGF property. We also reveal the influences of overlapping width, graphene strip size, Poisson's ratio of the substrate material, size effect, interfacial resistance, and network size to the SGF property. These results can guide the design of GWFs with desired sensing performance.
Time-resolved detection of propagating Lamb waves in thin silicon membranes with frequencies up to 197 GHz106(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4919132View Description Hide Description
Guided acoustic waves are generated in nanopatterned silicon membranes with aluminum gratings by optical excitation with a femtosecond laser. The spatial modulation of the photoacoustic excitation leads to Lamb waves with wavelengths determined by the grating period. The excited Lamb waves are optically detected for different grating periods and at distances up to several μm between pump and probe spot. The measured frequencies are compared to the theoretical dispersion relation for Lamb waves in thin silicon membranes. Compared to surface acoustic waves in bulk silicon twice higher frequencies for Lamb waves (197 GHz with a 100 nm grating) are generated in a membrane at equal grating periods.
106(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4919235View Description Hide Description
In this letter, a class of honeycomb acoustic metamaterial possessing lightweight and yet sound-proof properties is designed, theoretically proven, and then experimentally verified. It is here reported that the proposed metamaterial having a remarkably small mass per unit area at 1.3 kg/m2 can achieve low frequency (<500 Hz) sound transmission loss (STL) consistently greater than 45 dB. Furthermore, the sandwich panel which incorporates the honeycomb metamaterial as the core material yields a STL that is consistently greater than 50 dB at low frequencies. The proposed metamaterial is promising for constructing structures that are simultaneously strong, lightweight, and sound-proof.