- photonics and optoelectronics
- surfaces and interfaces
- structural, mechanical, optical, and thermodynamic properties of advanced materials
- magnetics and spintronics
- superconductivity and superconducting electronics
- dielectrics, ferroelectrics, and multiferroics
- nanoscale science and technology
- device physics
- biophysics and bio-inspired systems
- energy conversion and storage
- interdisciplinary and general physics
Index of content:
Volume 107, Issue 14, 05 October 2015
We present a method of forming and controlling large arrays of gate-defined quantum devices. The method uses an on-chip, multiplexed charge-locking system and helps to overcome the restraints imposed by the number of wires available in cryostat measurement systems. The device architecture that we describe here utilises a multiplexer-type scheme to lock charge onto gate electrodes. The design allows access to and control of gates whose total number exceeds that of the available electrical contacts and enables the formation, modulation and measurement of large arrays of quantum devices. We fabricate such devices on n-type GaAs/AlGaAs substrates and investigate the stability of the charge locked on to the gates. Proof-of-concept is shown by measurement of the Coulomb blockade peaks of a single quantum dot formed by a floating gate in the device. The floating gate is seen to drift by approximately one Coulomb oscillation per hour.
- PHOTONICS AND OPTOELECTRONICS
107(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4932098View Description Hide Description
The exciton transport is studied in high quality ZnO microwires using time resolved cathodoluminescence. Owing to the available picosecond temporal and nanometer spatial resolution, a direct estimation of the exciton average speed has been measured. When raising the temperature, a strong decrease of the effective exciton mobility (hopping speed of donor-bound excitons) has been observed in the absence of any remarkable change in the effective lifetime of excitons. Additionally, the exciton hopping speed was observed to be independent of the strain gradient value, revealing the hopping nature of exciton movement. These experimental results are in good agreement with the behavior predicted for impurity-bound excitons in our previously published theoretical model based on Monte-Carlo simulations, suggesting the hopping process as the main transport mechanism of impurity-bound excitons at low temperatures.
107(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4932199View Description Hide Description
We demonstrate infrared femtosecond laser-induced inversion of ferroelectric domains. This process can be realised solely by using tightly focused laser pulses without application of any electric field prior to, in conjunction with, or subsequent to the laser irradiation. As most ferroelectric crystals like LiNbO3, LiTaO3, and KTiOPO4 are transparent in the infrared, this optical poling method allows one to form ferroelectric domain patterns much deeper inside a ferroelectric crystal than by using ultraviolet light and hence can be used to fabricate practical devices. We also propose in situ diagnostics of the ferroelectric domain inversion process by monitoring the Čerenkov second harmonic signal, which is sensitive to the appearance of ferroelectric domain walls.
107(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4932228View Description Hide Description
Two site-controlled quantum dots (QDs) were integrated in a photonic crystal molecule (PCM) formed by L3 nanocavities. A statistical analysis of the coupled cavity modes demonstrated the formation of bonding and anti-bonding delocalized PCM states. Excitonic transitions belonging to each QD were identified by scanning micro-photoluminescence spectroscopy. Co-polarization of the QDs photoluminescence with the coupled cavity modes provides evidence for the simultaneous coupling of two spatially separated QDs to the same PCM mode.
High-performance short-wavelength infrared photodetectors based on type-II InAs/InAs1-xSbx/AlAs1−xSbx superlattices107(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4932518View Description Hide Description
A high-performance short-wavelength infrared n-i-p photodiode based on InAs/InAs1−xSbx/AlAs1−xSbx type-II superlattices on GaSb substrate has been demonstrated. The device is designed to have a 50% cut-off wavelength of ∼1.8 μm at 300 K. The photodetector exhibited a room-temperature (300 K) peak responsivity of 0.47 A/W at 1.6 μm, corresponding to a quantum efficiency of 37% at zero bias under front-side illumination, without any anti-reflection coating. With an R × A of 285 Ω cm2 and a dark current density of 9.6 × 10−5 A/cm2 under −50 mV applied bias at 300 K, the photodiode exhibited a specific detectivity of 6.45 × 1010 cm Hz1/2/W. At 200 K, the photodiode exhibited a dark current density of 1.3 × 10−8 A/cm2 and a quantum efficiency of 36%, resulting in a detectivity of 5.66 × 1012 cm Hz1/2/W.
107(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4932538View Description Hide Description
We report on the experimental demonstration of a room temperature, II-VI, ZnCdSe/ZnCdMgSe, broadband Quantum Cascade detector. The detector consists of 30 periods of 2 interleaved active-absorption regions centered at wavelengths 4.8 μm and 5.8 μm, respectively. A broad and smooth photocurrent spectrum between 3.3 μm and 6 μm spanning a width of 1030 cm–1 measured at 10% above baseline was obtained up to 280 K, corresponding to a of 47%. Calibrated blackbody responsivity measurements show a measured peak responsivity of 40 mA/W at 80 K, corresponding to a detectivity of about Bias dependent photocurrent measurements revealed no significant change in the spectral shape, suggesting an impedance matched structure between the different active regions.
107(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4932574View Description Hide Description
Photonic trumpets are broadband dielectric antennas that efficiently funnel the emission of a point-like quantum emitter—such as a semiconductor quantum dot—into a Gaussian free-space beam. After describing guidelines for the taper design, we present a “giant” photonic trumpet. The device features a bottom diameter of 210 nm and a wide top facet. Using Fourier microscopy, we show that 95% of the emitted beam is intercepted by a modest numerical aperture of 0.35. Furthermore, far-field measurements reveal a highly Gaussian angular profile, in agreement with the predicted overlap to a Gaussian beam . Future application prospects include the direct coupling of these devices to a cleaved single-mode optical fiber. The calculated transmission from the taper base to the fiber already reaches 0.59, and we discuss strategies to further improve this figure of merit.
107(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4932582View Description Hide Description
This letter analyzes the proposal to mitigate the efficiency droop in solid-state light emitters by replacing InGaN light-emitting diodes (LEDs) with lasers. The argument in favor of this approach is that carrier-population clamping after the onset of lasing limits carrier loss to that at threshold, while stimulated emission continues to grow with injection current. A fully quantized (carriers and light) theory that is applicable to LEDs and lasers (above and below threshold) is used to obtain a quantitative evaluation. The results confirm the potential advantage of higher laser output power and efficiency above lasing threshold, while also indicating disadvantages including low efficiency prior to lasing onset, sensitivity of lasing threshold to temperature, and the effects of catastrophic laser failure. A solution to some of these concerns is suggested that takes advantage of recent developments in nanolasers.
107(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4932520View Description Hide Description
A temporal Coupled-Mode Theory model is developed to predict performance of resonant near-field ThermoPhotoVoltaic systems, which typically requires numerically intensive calculations. It is formulated for both orthogonal and non-orthogonal (coupled) modes and includes load-voltage dependencies and non-idealities, such as background absorption and radiation losses. Its good accuracy is confirmed by comparing with exact transfer-matrix calculations for two simple planar systems: a plasmonic emitter across a bulk semiconductor absorber and a metal-backed thin-film semiconductor emitter across an identical absorber.
107(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4932946View Description Hide Description
We report the full energy control over a semiconductor cavity-emitter system, consisting of single Stark-tunable quantum dots embedded in mechanically reconfigurable photonic crystal membranes. A reversible wavelength tuning of the emitter over 7.5 nm as well as an 8.5 nm mode shift are realized on the same device. Harnessing these two electrical tuning mechanisms, a single exciton transition is brought on resonance with the cavity mode at several wavelengths, demonstrating a ten-fold enhancement of its spontaneous emission. These results open the way to bring several cavity-enhanced emitters mutually into resonance and therefore represent a key step towards scalable quantum photonic circuits featuring multiple sources of indistinguishable single photons.
107(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4932951View Description Hide Description
By means of a cost effective nanosphere lithography technique, an InGaN/GaN multiple quantum well structure grown on (11–22) semipolar GaN has been fabricated into two dimensional nanorod arrays which form a photonic crystal (PhC) structure. Such a PhC structure demonstrates not only significantly increased emission intensity, but also an enhanced polarization ratio of the emission. This is due to an effective inhibition of the emission in slab modes and then redistribution to the vertical direction, thus minimizing the light scattering processes that lead to randomizing of the optical polarization. The PhC structure is designed based on a standard finite-difference-time-domain simulation, and then optically confirmed by detailed time-resolved photoluminescence measurements. The results presented pave the way for the fabrication of semipolar InGaN/GaN based emitters with both high efficiency and highly polarized emission.
107(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4931759View Description Hide Description
Au nanoparticles show large third-order nonlinear effect and ultra-fast response. Here a high nonlinear aggregate film based on self-assembled gold nanoparticles is reported and its third-order nonlinear refractive index coefficient is measured by Z-scan experiment. The third-order nonlinear refractive index coefficient of the Au nanoparticle aggregate film (γ 1 = 9.2 × 10−9 cm2/W) is found to be larger than that of an 8-nm-thick sputtered Au film (γ 2 = 6.5 × 10−9 cm2/W). This large nonlinear effect can be attributed to the strong field enhancement due to localized plasmon resonances between Au nanoparticles. The result shows that the self-assembled Au nanoparticle aggregate film could be a promising candidate as a third-order nonlinear optical material.
107(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4931779View Description Hide Description
We investigate the generation of random numbers via the quantum process of spontaneous Raman scattering. Spontaneous Raman photons are produced by illuminating a highly nonlinear chalcogenide glass ( ) fiber with a CW laser at a power well below the stimulated Raman threshold. Single Raman photons are collected and separated into two discrete wavelength detuning bins of equal scattering probability. The sequence of photon detection clicks is converted into a random bit stream. Postprocessing is applied to remove detector bias, resulting in a final bit rate of ∼650 kb/s. The collected random bit-sequences pass the NIST statistical test suite for one hundred 1 Mb samples, with the significance level set to . The fiber is stable, robust and the high nonlinearity (compared to silica) allows for a short fiber length and low pump power favourable for real world application.
107(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4933093View Description Hide Description
We demonstrate broadband, low loss optical waveguiding in single crystalline GaN grown epitaxially on c-plane sapphire wafers through a buffered metal-organic chemical vapor phase deposition process. High Q optical microring resonators are realized in near infrared, infrared, and near visible regimes with intrinsic quality factors exceeding 50 000 at all the wavelengths we studied. TEM analysis of etched waveguide reveals growth and etch-induced defects. Reduction of these defects through improved material and device processing could lead to even lower optical losses and enable a wideband photonic platform based on GaN-on-sapphire material system.
- SURFACES AND INTERFACES
107(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4931123View Description Hide Description
Diamond metal-oxide-semiconductor capacitors were prepared using atomic layer deposition at 250 °C of Al2O3 on oxygen-terminated boron doped (001) diamond. Their electrical properties were investigated in terms of capacitance and current versus voltage measurements. Performing X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy based on the measured core level energies and valence band maxima, the interfacial energy band diagram configuration of the Al2O3/O-diamond is established. The band diagram alignment is concluded to be of type I with valence band offset of 1.34 ± 0.2 eV and conduction band offset of 0.56 ± 0.2 eV considering an Al2O3 energy band gap of 7.4 eV. The agreement with electrical measurement and the ability to perform a MOS transistor are discussed.
107(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4932050View Description Hide Description
Frost and ice formation can have severe negative consequences, such as aircraft safety and reliability. At atmospheric pressure, water heterogeneously condenses and then freezes at low temperatures. To alter this freezing process, this research examines the effects of biphilic surfaces (surfaces which combine hydrophilic and hydrophobic regions) on heterogeneous water nucleation, growth, and freezing. Silicon wafers were coated with a self-assembled monolayer and patterned to create biphilic surfaces. Samples were placed on a freezing stage in an environmental chamber at atmospheric pressure, at a temperature of 295 K, and relative humidities of 30%, 60%, and 75%. Biphilic surfaces had a significant effect on droplet dynamics and freezing behavior. The addition of biphilic patterns decreased the temperature required for freezing by 6 K. Biphilic surfaces also changed the size and number of droplets on a surface at freezing and delayed the time required for a surface to freeze. The main mechanism affecting freezing characteristics was the coalescence behavior.
107(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4932517View Description Hide Description
Magnetoelectric materials have great potential to revolutionize electronic devices due to the coupling of their electric and magnetic properties. Thickness varying La0.7Sr0.3MnO3 (LSMO)/PbZr0.2Ti0.8O3 (PZT) heterostructures were built and measured in this article by valence sensitive x-ray absorption spectroscopy. The sizing effects of the heterostructures on the LSMO/PZT magnetoelectric interfaces were investigated through the behavior of Mn valence, a property associated with the LSMO magnetization. We found that Mn valence increases with both LSMO and PZT thickness. Piezoresponse force microscopy revealed a transition from monodomain to polydomain structure along the PZT thickness gradient. The ferroelectric surface charge may change with domain structure and its effects on Mn valence were simulated using a two-orbital double-exchange model. The screening of ferroelectric surface charge increases the electron charges in the interface region, and greatly changes the interfacial Mn valence, which likely plays a leading role in the interfacial magnetoelectric coupling. The LSMO thickness dependence was examined through the combination of two detection modes with drastically different attenuation depths. The different length scales of these techniques' sensitivity to the atomic valence were used to estimate the depth dependence Mn valence. A smaller interfacial Mn valence than the bulk was found by globally fitting the experimental results.
107(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4931705View Description Hide Description
We study magnetic coupling between hole-doped manganite layers separated by either a perovskite or a rock-salt barrier of variable thickness. Both the type and the quality of the interface have a strong impact on the minimum critical barrier thickness where the manganite layers become magnetically decoupled. A rock-salt barrier layer only 1 unit cell (0.5 nm) thick remains insulating and is able to magnetically de-couple the electrode layers. The technique can therefore be used for developing high-performance planar oxide electronic devices such as magnetic tunnel junctions and quantum well structures that depend on magnetically and electronically sharp heterointerfaces.
107(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4932953View Description Hide Description
We have investigated the interfacial structure of epitaxial (Ba,Sr)TiO3 films grown on (111)-oriented SrTiO3 single-crystal substrates using transmission electron microscopy (TEM) techniques. Compared with the (100) epitaxial perovskite films, we observe dominant dislocation half-loop with Burgers vectors of a ⟨110⟩ comprised of a misfit dislocation along ⟨112⟩, and threading dislocations along ⟨110⟩ or ⟨100⟩. The misfit dislocation with Burgers vector of a ⟨110⟩ can dissociate into two ½ a ⟨110⟩ partial dislocations and one stacking fault. We found the dislocation reactions occur not only between misfit dislocations, but also between threading dislocations. Via three-dimensional electron tomography, we retrieved the configurations of the threading dislocation reactions. The reactions between threading dislocations lead to a more efficient strain relaxation than do the misfit dislocations alone in the near-interface region of the (111)-oriented (Ba0.7Sr0.3)TiO3 films.
107(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4933036View Description Hide Description
The surface viscosity and self-diffusion of a Pd-based metallic glass were measured using annealing-induced decay of its surface submicron gratings. Strong surface dynamics and surface diffusion with the value of more than 105 times faster than bulk diffusion are found at temperatures below glass transition. The high surface dynamic induces a fast crystallization below glass transition temperature at the free surface which is more than 100 times faster than that in bulk.
Surface stability and the selection rules of substrate orientation for optimal growth of epitaxial II-VI semiconductors107(2015); http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4932374View Description Hide Description
The surface structures of ionic zinc-blende CdTe (001), (110), (111), and (211) surfaces are systematically studied by first-principles density functional calculations. Based on the surface structures and surface energies, we identify the detrimental twinning appearing in molecular beam epitaxy (MBE) growth of II-VI compounds as the (111) lamellar twin boundaries. To avoid the appearance of twinning in MBE growth, we propose the following selection rules for choosing optimal substrate orientations: (1) the surface should be nonpolar so that there is no large surface reconstructions that could act as a nucleation center and promote the formation of twins; (2) the surface structure should have low symmetry so that there are no multiple equivalent directions for growth. These straightforward rules, in consistent with experimental observations, provide guidelines for selecting proper substrates for high-quality MBE growth of II-VI compounds.