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28.See supplementary material at for sample preparation and microscopy experimental details, a fuller discussion of oxygen position determination with the aid of image simulations, full details of the reconstruction of the 3D structure and the calculation of the polarisation variation with position, and the final validation of the model using image simulations, as well as a full xyz model of the 3D atomic structure for viewing in a range of crystal and molecule viewers. [Supplementary Material]

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Observation of an unusual, negatively-charged antiphase boundary in (BiNd)(TiFe)O is reported. Aberration corrected scanning transmission electron microscopy is used to establish the full three dimensional structure of this boundary including O-ion positions to ∼±10 pm. The charged antiphase boundary stabilises tetragonally distorted regions with a strong polar ordering to either side of the boundary, with a characteristic length scale determined by the excess charge trapped at the boundary. Far away from the boundary the crystal relaxes into the well-known Nd-stabilised antiferroelectric phase.


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