No data available.
Please log in to see this content.
You have no subscription access to this content.
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.
Patterned electrochemical deposition of copper using an electron beam
1. M. Wang, S. Zhong, X.-B. Yin, J.-M. Zhu, R.-W. Peng, Y. Wang, K.-Q. Zhang, and N.-B. Ming, “Nanostructured copper filaments in electrochemical deposition,” Phys. Rev. Lett. 86, 3827 (2001).
4. D. Routkevitch, T. Bigioni, M. Moskovits, and J. M. Xu, “Electrochemical fabrication of CdS nanowire arrays in porous anodic aluminum oxide templates,” J. Phys. Chem. 100, 14037–14047 (1996).
5. M. Yun, N. V. Myung, R. P. Vasquez, C. Lee, E. Menke, and R. M. Penner, “Electrochemically grown wires for individually addressable sensor arrays,” Nano Lett. 4, 419 (2004).
8. T. Felgenhauer, C. Yan, W. Geyer, H.-T. Rong, A. Golzhauser, and M. Buck, “Electrode modification by electron-induced patterning of aromatic self-assembled monolayers,” Appl. Phys. Lett. 79, 3323–3325 (2001).
9. B. Zhang, Y.-Y. Weng, X.-P. Huang, M. Wang, R.-W. Peng, N.-B. Ming, B. Yang, N. Lu, and L. Chi, “Creating in-plane metallic-nanowire arrays by corner-mediated electrodeposition,” Adv. Mater. 21, 3576–3580 (2009).
10. J.-C. Bradley, H.-M. Chen, J. Crawford, J. Eckert, K. Ernazarova, T. Kurzeja, M. Lin, M. McGee, W. Nadler, and S. G. Stephens, “Creating electrical contacts between metal particles using directed electrochemical growth,” Nature (London) 389, 268–271 (1997).
11. C. Cheng, R. K. Gonela, Q. Gu, and D. T. Haynie, “Self-assembly of metallic nanowires from aqueous solution,” Nano Lett. 5, 175–178 (2005).
13. J. K. Kawasaki and C. B. Arnold, “Synthesis of platinum dendrites and nanowires via directed electrochemical nanowire assembly,” Nano Lett. 11, 781–785 (2011).
14. P. Bindra, G. V. Arbach, and U. Stimming, “On the mechanism of laser enhanced plating of copper,” J. Electrochem. Soc. 134, 2893 (1987).
15. R. J. von Gutfeld, L. T. Romankiw, and R. E. Acosta, “Laser-enhanced plating and etching: Mechanisms and applications,” IBM J. Res. Dev. 26, 136–144 (1982).
16. I. Zouari, C. Pierre, F. Lapicque, and M. Calvo, “Maskless zinc electrodeposition assisted by a pulsed laser beam,” J. Appl. Electrochem. 23, 863–872 (1993).
17. M. J. Williamson, R. M. Tromp, P. M. Vereecken, R. Hull, and F. M. Ross, “Dynamic electron microscopy in liquid environments,” Nat. Mater. 2, 532–536 (2003).
18. A. Radisic, P. M. Vereecken, J. B. Hannon, P. C. Searson, and F. M. Ross, “Quantifying electrochemical nucleation and growth mechanisms from real-time kinetic data,” Nano Lett. 6, 238–242 (2006).
19. M. den Heijer, “In-situ transmission electron microscopy of electrodeposition: Technical development and beam effects,” M.Sc. thesis (Delft Technical University/Leiden University, 2008). Compared to the cells described in Refs. 17 and 18, here the wire electrodes are placed between the top wafer and the reservoirs which, together with small changes in construction, improve the reliability of cell assembly.
21.For the in-beam experiments and Cl−-free electrolyte, only one field of view is available per datapoint. The number of clusters is divided by the imaged area, with an error bar equal to the square root of the number of clusters divided by the area of the image, in accordance with an assumption that the number of clusters per area follows a Poisson distribution. As the overpotential increases, the growth rate increases leading to rapid coalescence. A movie frame is chosen from a slightly earlier time to resolve clusters before coalescence and allow more accurate measurement of density. At −130 mV the clusters are too close to distinguish and we show only a lower bound. For the out of beam data points, the movie taken during the survey around the electrode is cut into non-overlapping images. For 6 of the 11 experiments we have at least two such images available and the density among these images appears consistent. The datapoint is the average and the error bars represent the maximum and minimum density observed. If no clusters are found, the upper limit is calculated as 1/total area inspected. For the other 5 of the 11 experiments the cluster density varies widely: the datapoint represents an estimate of the density and the error bars represent an estimate of the confidence interval.
24. L. Reimer, Transmission Electron Microscopy. (Springer-Verlag, Berlin, 1997).
25. A. Mozumder, Fundamentals of Radiation Chemistry (Academic Press, 1999).
26. S. Le Caër, “Water radiolysis: Influence of oxide surfaces on H2 production under ionizing radiation,” Water 3, 235–253 (2011).
27. B. C. Garrett, D. A. Dixon, D. M. Camaioni, D. M. Chipman, M. A. Johnson, C. D. Jonah, G. A. Kimmel, J. H. Miller, T. N. Rescigno, P. J. Rossky et al., “Role of water in electron-initiated processes and radical chemistry: Issues and scientific advances,” Chem. Rev. 105, 355–389 (2005).
28. P. Fenter, S. S. Lee, Z. Zhang, and N. C. Sturchio, “In-situ imaging of orthoclase-aqueous solution interfaces with x-ray reflection interface microscopy,” J. Appl. Phys. 110, 102211–1102211–9 (2011).
29. J. Grogan, N. M. Schneider, F. M. Ross, and H. H. Bau, “Bubble and pattern formation in liquid induced by an electron beam,” Nano Lett. 14, 359–364 (2014).
30. H. Zheng, S. A. Claridge, A. M. Minor, A. P. Alivisatos, and U. Dahmen, “Nanocrystal diffusion in a liquid thin film observed by in situ transmission electron microscopy,” Nano Lett. 9, 2460–2465 (2009).
31.Such small effects appear counterintuitive, since strong local heating is possible for conventional TEM grid samples,23,24 but here a large rise is prevented by the high thermal conductivity of the liquid and membranes.
32. J. E. Evans, K. L. Jungjohann, N. D. Browning, and I. Arslan, “Controlled growth of nanoparticles from solution with in situ liquid transmission electron microscopy,” Nano Lett. 11, 2809–2813 (2011).
33. H. Zheng, R. K. Smith, Y. Jun, C. Kisielowski, U. Dahmen, and A. P. Alivisatos, “Observation of single colloidal platinum nanocrystal growth trajectories,” Science 324, 1309–1312 (2009).
34. E. U. Donev and J. T. Hastings, “Electron-beam-induced deposition of platinum from a liquid precursor,” Nano Lett. 9, 2715–2718 (2009).
35. J. M. Joseph, B. S. Choi, P. Yakabuskie, and J. C. Wren, “A combined experimental and model analysis on the effect of pH and O2 (aq) on γ-radiolytically produced H2 and H2O2,” Radiat. Phys. Chem. 77, 1009–1020 (2008).
36. K. R. Siefermann, Y. Liu, E. Lugovoy, O. Link, M. Faubel, U. Buck, B. Winter, and B. Abel, “Binding energies, lifetimes and implications of bulk and interface solvated electrons in water,” Nat. Chem. 2, 274–279 (2010).
37. F. Möller, O. M. Magnussen, and R. J. Behm, “CuCl adlayer formation and Cl induced surface alloying: An in situ STM study on Cu underpotential deposition on Au (110) electrode surfaces,” Electrochim. Acta 40, 1259–1265 (1995).
38. E. Herrero, L. J. Buller, and H. D. Abruña, “Underpotential deposition at single crystal surfaces of Au, Pt, Ag and other materials,” Chem. Rev. 101, 1897–1930 (2001).
40.The mechanism has some analogies with the reduction of AgCl to Ag metal by photons when exposing photographic plates. This poses the question of whether visible illumination affects deposition in a Cl− -containing electrolyte. CV and current-time transients in the Cl−-containing electrolyte showed small effects when switching a 500 W halogen lamp light source on and off. However, by changing the timing of the illumination, these effects appeared to be due to temperature changes via lamp heating. We cannot rule out effects at higher intensity.
41. J. Velmurugan, J.-M. Noël, W. Nogala, and M. V. Mirkin, “Nucleation and growth of metal on nanoelectrodes,” Chem. Sci. 3, 3307–3314 (2012).
Article metrics loading...
We describe a technique for patterning clusters of metal using electrochemical deposition. By operating an electrochemical cell in the transmission electron microscope, we deposit Cu on Au under potentiostatic conditions. For acidified copper sulphate electrolytes, nucleation occurs uniformly over the electrode. However, when chloride ions are added there is a range of applied potentials over which nucleation occurs only in areas irradiated by the electron beam. By scanning the beam we control nucleation to form patterns of deposited copper. We discuss the mechanism for this effect in terms of electron beam-induced reactions with copper chloride, and consider possible applications.
Full text loading...
Most read this month