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Anomalous effect due to oxygen vacancy accumulation below the electrode in bipolar resistance switching Pt/Nb:SrTiO3
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See supplementary material at http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4884215
for sample fabrication, measurement details, calculation for the hopping probabilities and electrical current, calculation method for the Joule heating, dependence of maximum value of oxygen vacancy concentration. [Supplementary Material]
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In conventional semiconductor theory, greater doping decreases the electronic resistance of a semiconductor. For the bipolar resistance switching (BRS) phenomena in oxides, the same doping principle has been used commonly to explain the relationship between the density variation of oxygen vacancies (V o ¨) and the electronic resistance. We find that the V o ¨ density can change at a depth of ∼10 nm below the Pt electrodes in Pt/Nb:SrTiO3 cells, depending on the resistance state. Using electron energy loss spectroscopy and secondary ion mass spectrometry, we found that greater V o ¨ density underneath the electrode resulted in higher resistance, contrary to the conventional doping principle of semiconductors. To explain this seemingly anomalous experimental behavior, we provide quantitative explanations on the anomalous BRS behavior by simulating the mobile V o ¨ [J. S. Lee et al., Appl. Phys. Lett. 102, 253503 (2013)] near the Schottky barrier interface.
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