Skip to main content
banner image
No data available.
Please log in to see this content.
You have no subscription access to this content.
No metrics data to plot.
The attempt to load metrics for this article has failed.
The attempt to plot a graph for these metrics has failed.
The full text of this article is not currently available.
1. A. Kojima, K. Teshima, Y. Shirai, and T. Miyasaka, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 131, 6050 (2009).
2. J.-H. Im, C.-R. Lee, J.-W. Lee, S.-W. Park, and N.-G. Park, Nanoscale 3, 4088 (2011).
3. H. J. Snaith, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 4, 3623 (2013).
4. D. B. Mitzi, Prog. Inorg. Chem. 48, 1 (1999).
5. M. Liu, M. B. Johnston, and H. J. Snaith, Nature 501, 395 (2013).
6. J. Burschka, N. Pellet, S.-J. Moon, R. Humphry-Baker, P. Gao, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and M. Grätzel, Nature 499, 316 (2013).
7. C. Wehrenfennig, G. E. Eperon, M. B. Johnston, H. J. Snaith, and L. M. Herz, Adv. Mater. 26, 1584 (2014).
8. S. D. Stranks, G. E. Eperon, G. Grancini, C. Menelaou, M. J. P. Alcocer, T. Leijtens, L. M. Herz, A. Petrozza, and H. J. Snaith, Science 342, 341 (2013).
9. G. E. Eperon, V. M. Burlakov, P. Docampo, A. Goriely, and H. J. Snaith, Adv. Funct. Mater. 24, 151 (2014).
10. Q. Chen, H. Zhou, Z. Hong, S. Luo, H.-S. Duan, H.-H. Wang, Y. Liu, G. Li, and Y. Yang, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 136, 622 (2014).
11. O. Malinkiewicz, A. Yella, Y. Lee, G. Espallargas, M. Grätzel, M. K. Nazeeruddin, and H. J. Bolink, Nat. Photonics 8, 128 (2014).
12. J. You, Z. Hong, Y. Yang, Q. Chen, M. Cai, T.-B. Song, C.-C. Chen, S. Lu, Y. Liu, and H. Zhou, ACS Nano 8, 1674 (2014).
13. B. Conings, L. Baeten, C. De Dobbelaere, J. D’Haen, J. Manca, and H.-G. Boyen, Adv. Mater. 26, 2041 (2014).
14. B. Kippelen and J.-L. Brédas, Energy Environ. Sci. 2, 251 (2009).
15. M. Riede, T. Mueller, T. Mueller, W. Tress, R. Schueppel, R. Schueppel, and K. Leo, Nanotechnology 19, 424001 (2008).
16. P. Schulz, E. Edri, S. Kirmayer, G. Hodes, D. Cahen, and A. Kahn, Energy Environ. Sci. 7, 1377 (2014).
17. Y. S. Kwon, J. Lim, H.-J. Yun, Y.-H. Kim, and T. Park, Energy Environ. Sci. 7, 1454 (2014).
18. J. Wang, S. Wang, X. Li, L. Zhu, Q. Meng, Y. Xiao, and D. Li, Chem. Commun. 50, 5829 (2014).
19. T. Krishnamoorthy, F. Kunwu, P. Boix, and H. Li, J. Mater. Chem. A 2, 6305 (2014).
20. N. J. Jeon, J. Lee, J. H. Noh, M. K. Nazeeruddin, M. Grätzel, and S. I. Seok, J. Am. Chem. Soc. 135, 19087 (2013).
21. K. Walzer, B. Maennig, M. Pfeiffer, and K. Leo, Chem. Rev. 107, 1233 (2007).
22. Y. Shirota and H. Kageyama, Chem. Rev. 107, 953 (2007).
23. B. Maennig, J. Drechsel, D. Gebeyehu, P. Simon, F. Kozlowski, A. Werner, S. Grundmann, S. Sonntag, M. Koch, K. Leo, M. Pfeiffer, H. Hoppe, D. Meissner, N. S. Sariciftci, I. Riedel, V. Dyakonov, and J. Parisi, Appl. Phys. A 79, 1 (2004).
24.See supplementary material at for full experimental details. [Supplementary Material]
25. T. P. I. Saragi, T. Spehr, A. Siebert, T. Fuhrmann-Lieker, and J. Salbeck, Chem. Rev. 107, 1011 (2007).
26. W. Zhao and A. Kahn, J. Appl. Phys. 105, 123711 (2009).

Data & Media loading...


Article metrics loading...



This work addresses the effect of energy level alignment between the hole-transporting material and the active layer in vacuum deposited, planar-heterojunction CHNHPbICl perovskite solar cells. Through a series of hole-transport materials, with conductivity values set using controlled p-doping of the layer, we correlate their ionization potentials with the open-circuit voltage of the device. With ionization potentials beyond 5.3 eV, a substantial decrease in both current density and voltage is observed, which highlights the delicate energetic balance between driving force for hole-extraction and maximizing the photovoltage. In contrast, when an optimal ionization potential match is found, the open-circuit voltage can be maximized, leading to power conversion efficiencies of up to 10.9%. These values are obtained with hole-transport materials that differ from the commonly used Spiro-MeO-TAD and correspond to a 40% performance increase this reference.


Full text loading...


Access Key

  • FFree Content
  • OAOpen Access Content
  • SSubscribed Content
  • TFree Trial Content
752b84549af89a08dbdd7fdb8b9568b5 journal.articlezxybnytfddd