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Influence of the orientation of methylammonium lead iodide perovskite crystals on solar cell performance
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See supplementary material at http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4890244
for a detailed description of the experimental procedure, perovskite conversion evolution with time and its SEM images, hysteretic behavior of optimized solar cells, SEM images and UV-Vis absorption of low and high temperature processed perovskite structures, a description of the lead iodide layer optimization, and a summary of the resulting solar cells. [Supplementary Material]
18. H. J. Snaith, A. Abate, J. M. Ball, G. E. Eperon, T. Leijtens, N. K. Noel, S. D. Stranks, J. T.-W. Wang, K. Wojciechowski, and W. Zhang, J. Phys. Chem. Lett. 5(9), 1511 (2014).
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Perovskite solar cells are emerging as serious candidates for thin film photovoltaics with power conversion efficiencies already exceeding 16%. Devices based on a planar heterojunction architecture, where the MAPbI3 perovskite film is simply sandwiched between two charge selective extraction contacts, can be processed at low temperatures (<150 °C), making them particularly attractive for tandem and flexible applications. However, in this configuration, the perovskite crystals formed are more or less randomly oriented on the surface. Our results show that by increasing the conversion step temperature from room temperature to 60 °C, the perovskite crystal orientation on the substrate can be controlled. We find that films with a preferential orientation of the long axis of the tetragonal unit cell parallel to the substrate achieve the highest short circuit currents and correspondingly the highest photovoltaic performance.
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