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In order to analyze the crystal transformation from hexagonal PbI to CHNHPbI by the sequential (two-step) deposition process, perovskite CHNHPbI layers were deposited on flat and/or porous TiO layers. Although the narrower pores using small nanoparticles prohibited the effective transformation, the porous-TiO matrix was able to help the crystal transformation of PbI to CHNHPbI by sequential two-step deposition. The resulting PbI crystals in porous TiO electrodes did not deteriorate the photovoltaic effects. Moreover, it is confirmed that the porous TiO electrode had served the function of prohibiting short circuits between working and counter electrodes in perovskite solar cells.


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