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Large-scale deployment of a wide range of optoelectronic devices, including solar cells, critically depends on the long-term stability of their front electrodes. Here, we investigate the performance of Sn-doped InO (ITO), H-doped InO (IO:H), and Zn-doped InO (IZO) electrodes under damp heat (DH) conditions (85 °C, 85% relative humidity). ITO, IO:H capped with ITO, and IZO show high stability with only 3%, 9%, and 13% sheet resistance () degradation after 1000 h of DH, respectively. For uncapped IO:H, we find a 75% degradation, due to losses in electron Hall mobility (). We propose that this degradation results from chemisorbed OH- or HO-related species in the film, which is confirmed by thermal desorption spectroscopy and x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. While strongly degrades during DH, the optical mobility () remains unchanged, indicating that the degradation mainly occurs at grain boundaries.


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