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See supplementary material at for operational voltage losses with respect to Shockley-Queisser limit (Figure S1); illustration of the relation between ferroelectricity, pyroelectricity and piezoelectricity, among all 32 classes of dielectric crystals (Figure S2); XPS elemental analysis of MAPbBr3single-crystal (100) surface (Table SI); images and dimensions of examined MAPbBr3crystals (Figure S3(a)) and the work-function position of a polished crystal and the different deposited electrodes (Figure S3(b)); schematic illustration of the Chynoweth measurement setup (Figure S4(a)) and examples for pyroelectric signals coming from an LiTaO3single crystal under similar conditions to those MAPbBr3was measured (Figures S4(b)-S4(d)); low frequency (1 Hz) measurement of MAPbBr3crystal sample with lead electrodes (Figure S5); impedance spectroscopy and resistivity results of MAPbBr3 crystals in ambient air at different temperatures (Figure S6).[Supplementary Material]
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To experimentally (dis)prove ferroelectric effects on the properties of lead-halide perovskites and of solar cells, based on them, we used second-harmonic-generation spectroscopy and the periodic temperature change (Chynoweth) technique to detect the polar nature of methylammonium lead bromide (MAPbBr). We find that MAPbBr is probably centrosymmetric and definitely non-polar; thus, it cannot be ferroelectric. Whenever pyroelectric-like signals were detected, they could be shown to be due to trapped charges, likely at the interface between the metal electrode and the MAPbBr semiconductor. These results indicate that the ferroelectric effects do not affect steady-state performance of MAPbBr solar cells.


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